Tanzania commonly known as The United Republic of Tanzania is a country situated in East Africa. This country is surrounded by Uganda and Kenya to the north, Rwanda Burundi and Democratic republic of Congo to the west and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. The eastern border of the country lies in the Indian Ocean. It ranks 31 in the matter of size in the world and is situated between latitudes of 1 and 12 degrees south and longitudes of 29 and 41 degree east. This country possesses a land area that is around thrice the land area of New Mexico and lies very close to the equator.
Tanzania has an exclusive geography that is extremely diverse and very rare. The north eastern portion of this country is filled with mountains including Mount Kilimanjaro that has the distinction of being Africa’s highest peak. The largest lake of Africa, the Great lakes of Victoria and the deepest lake called Lake Tanganyika are also situated in this country. The Nyasa Lake is another well known lake of Africa that is situated in the south of Tanzania. The middle portion of the country is made of up of a big plateau filled with plains and cultivable lands. The eastern coast is quite hot and sultry with the Zanzibar Island lying next to it. Zanzibar is split from the mainland by a channel that is around 22 miles.
This wonderful country is filled with extensive and ecologically important wildlife parks including the renowned Ngorongoro Crater and Serentgeti National Park towards the north, Selous Game Reserve and Mukumi National park in the south. The Kalambo falls are also situated in this country near the southernmost part of Lake Tanganyika.
The country possesses a sultry weather with temperature ranging between 10 and 20 degree Celsius during winter and 50 to 68 degrees in the extreme summer. The weather is quite good in the mountains region of the country. Tanzania receives considerable amount of rainfall from two seasons namely the Masika or long rain and Mvuli or short rainy season.
This republic comprises of 26 regions that include the self governing region of Zanzibar. Twenty of these are located on the main land while three are situated in Zanzibar Island and two on Pemba. Its capital is Dodoma and the parliament and important government offices are situated here. The most significant commercial city of the country is Tanzania is Dar es Salaam. It also has the distinction of being one of the most popular seaports of the country.
Tanzania is quite well known for its wildlife habitation mostly located in the Serengeti Plain. It has around 130 amphibian and 275 reptile species.
People of all countries including Arab, India, Pakistan and tiny European communities reside in this country. The country has got its name from two states Tanganyika and Zanzibar that were merged in 1964 to form United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar and was finally changed to the name United Republic of Tanzania some time later
Climate varies from region to region and the distinctive location of Tanzania results in the diverse climate conditions. With a tropical equatorial climate, the country has hot and humid climate during the year. Coastal areas have humid climate whereas regions near the plateaus have dry weather. Northern part of the country has two wet seasons one begins from March and lasts till May and the other wet season is between the months November and December. Rest of the country gets rains from November to May.
Heavy rains in these months disrupt transportations and life in the region. With floods affecting the infrastructure, movement within Tanzania is possible in January and February. For tourists, the climate becomes welcoming in between June and September. If you want to see animals in the Serengeti, September-March is the good time. In April and May, places get heavy rainfall and travelling becomes impossible. Vacationing during this period of the year is not recommended.
Dar-es-Salaam is the capital of Tanzania and it has tropical climate with a high humidity. The region has temperature ranging from 66ºF (19ºC) and 88ºF (31ºC). Located in the coastal area, Zanzibar has a warm climate throughout the year. However, the climate is changed drastically with the time to time cool sea breezes.
Kilimanjaro, the highest peak in the country has cold weather. Temperatures are below freezing point all through the year. Being a home for varied fauna, mammals and flora, Kilimanjaro had become very popular. However, the change in weather patterns will affect the wild life greatly.
Limdi, Mtwara and Tanga, and the off-shore Islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Unguja are coastal areas and they experience tropical climates. Here, the humidity is very high. Islands have temperatures varying from 27 to 29 degree Celsius. Coastal areas receive an average rainfall of 1000 to1900 mm.
Climate in Central, Northern and Western areas
Regions like Mwanza Kagera, Shinyanga, Kigoma and Tabora have low humidity and temperatures ranges from 20 to 27 degree Celsius during the June and August and 30 degree Celsius and more in December and March. Highland plateau here causes change in the climates.
Northeast and Southwest areas
Northern part of Tanzania is mountainous and it is cold in these areas. Mountain regions including Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Mara region as well as Mbeya, Rukwa, Iringa and Ruvuma, and Makonde Plateau have cold climates with temperatures below 15 degree Celsius at night during the cool months of June and July. Rungwe Mountains and the regions around have temperature low as 8 or 6 degree Celsius. 2000mm of rain is received by north-east and south-west mountainous areas annually.
Climate in the Central area
Dodoma and Singida make up the largest part of central Tanzania. The regions are semi-arid and they get an annual rainfall of less that 500mm.
The average temperature ranges between 17C – 27 C and the average precipitation is calculated as 1,042mm annually. Modified rains in central, western and southern regions make agriculture impossible. According to the 2007 reports of NAPA, the variability in rainfall cycles in the country is phenomenal.
The warmest average max/ high temperature is 32 °C (90 °F) during October and the coolest average min/ low temperature is 15 °C (59 °F) in months June and July. Apart from rainfall, the country gets sleet, hail or snow. In short, the climate condition in the country is hot and humid. Over the years, the weather patterns have changed and this results an imbalance in the ecosystem and environment of Tanzania.
United Republic of Tanzania is an East African country and lies between latitudes 1° and 12°S, and longitudes 29° and 41°E. Northern part of the country is made up of Mount Kilimanjaro and part of Great Lakes of Lake Victoria Lake Tanganyika flows through the country. Distinctive location of this country has brought about geographical changes to this place. Natural threats like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen in the various areas of the country.
Located on the active fault line extending from the north of the country to the south, Tanzania experiences occasional earth quakes. Minor tremors to earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 have occurred in this country. Earth quakes have occurred in certain regions of the country. An earthquake with magnitude 6.0 was struck in 2007 in this country. Area of the Kenya border trembled from the intensity of this earth quake.
Tanzania is found to have limited volcanic activity. One of the recent volcanic eruptions was from Ol Doinyo Lengai. Besides, there are Kieyo and Meru, two historically active volcanoes. These volcanoes can lead to potential natural disasters. Ol Doinyo Lengai, located in the north of Tanzania is part of Great Rift Valley’s volcanic system that is located in Eastern Africa.
This active volcano emits lava that is 510 °C (950 °F) of temperature. Located nearby are quiet few older extinct carbonatite volcanoes. Time to time eruptions has been recorded here. The earliest eruption to be recorded was way back in 1883 and the recent eruption was in the year 2007. In between these years there have been several eruptions and lava flows.
These volcanos have resulted in daily earth tremors in Tanzania. The 2007 Earthquake was as a result of the movement of magma through the Ol Doinyo Lengai. The activity which began in 2007 continued till August 2008.
The highest volcano outside South America is Mount Kilimanjaro and is positioned in northern Tanzania. This mountain is 5km above the plains and is 60 km wide. Kibo, Mawensi, and Shira are the three volcanic cones here. Meru located in northern Tanzania near Arusha, is a historically active volcano. This is a large volcano and is of classic stratovolcano shape. Other volcanos are Igwisi Hills, SW Usangu Basin, Ngozi, Izumbwe-Mpoli, Kieyo and Rungwe.
Tanzania gets heavy rains and in many regions floods are common. Human life and wild life are affected by these frequent floods. The central plateau is flooded during the rainy seasons. The floods have brought severe droughts in this region. Lately, the droughts have affected the agriculture.
At present the country faces other issues like soil degradation, deforestation and desertification. The increase destruction of coral reef threatens marine life largely. These are just few of the environmental issues faced by the country. Few of these issues are caused by man while others are natural. Immediate and effective measures should be taken to prevent such calamities.
These environmental issues create an imbalance. Protection of forests and wild life and preservation of coral reefs are necessary for the harmonious functioning of the nature. Dryness and year along hot climates have hampered the development of agriculture too. Most of the regions are dry land and surviving in these areas is not easy. Changing climatic conditions and varying rainfall cycles will cause impact on wildlife and human life, suggests NAPA reports (2007).
Fire and dry climates in the regions of Kilimanjaro have resulted in the destruction of forests. Over the decade, the mountain lost 300 km² of high altitude forest along with the lowering of upper closed forest by 900m. Fire resulted in the destruction of 10% of the forest in Kilimanjaro.
The tsetse fly has ruined the crops and has made the life difficult for the inhabitants of Tanzania. Those affected by these flies are large in numbers. Along with natural calamities and environmental issues, the tsetse fly also poses dangers to the people and country.
Earth quakes, Volcanoes and extreme climatic conditions bring damages to the country. Time to time earth quakes causes great tremors in the country. Droughts and floods have caused destruction to infrastructure, landscape and life of the people.
Tanzania is an East African country situated between Mozambique and Kenya. It is on 6 degree South and 35 degree East latitude and longitude respectively. The other countries surrounding Tanzania are Uganda, Rep. of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi Zambia and Malawi. When compared to its size Tanzania has a small stretch of coast line which is just 1424 Kms. Dodoma is the capital and Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar are the nearest airports to this city.
Various Provinces /regions of Tanzania
There are about twenty six regions or provinces in Tanzania of which Arusha, Mtwara, Ruvama, Dodoma, Kagera, Shiniyanga, Lindi, Manyara, Iringa, Morogoro, Kilimanjaro, Mwanza, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Zanzibar Central/South are noteworthy. Cities like Nansio, Sengerema, Same, Kondoa, Urambo, Kasulu, Chunya, Tunduru, Masasi, Liwale, and Njombe are also worth mentioning.
Arusha city is the capital of Arusha region. It situates in the northern part of Tanzania. Its climate is moderate. The temperature ranges between 13 to 30 degrees Celsius. As per the 2002 census, the population of the region is around 12 lakhs. Arusha is bordered by Africa’s prominent landscapes and national parks
Arusha is an agricultural region producing large quantities of vegetables and flower. Only in the Arusha region, Tanzanite, a gem-quality mineral is available and is being produced in large quantities.
Arusha’s notable districts are Central Business Area, Sekei which is a famous residential area with a vibrant nightlife, Nijro and Tengeru, a lively market-town in the East. In the north we get Karathu, Ngorongoro, Monduli, Arumeru and Longodo districts. Robanda Safari camp is one of the favourite Safari Camps. It is located just outside Serengetti Ikoma Gate.
Arusha hosts many Tanzanian festivals and the Yearly festival. Artists from around the world participate in these festivals.
Mtwara occupies the southern region of Tanzania. It remained an underdeveloped region quite for a long time due to lack of highway and energy infrastructure. Now the construction of the road connecting Dar-es-Salaam-Kibiti-Lindi-Mtwara has been completed and this will pave the way for the region’s development. As per the 2002 census the population of Mtwara is around is 11 lakhs.
This province or region is named after the river Ruvama. This river forms most of its southern boundary with Mozambique. The capital is Songea. For administrative efficiency the province is divided into 5 districts namely Tunduru, Mbinga, Namtumbo, Songea and Songea Rural. The estimated population according to 2002 census is 11 lacs.
Dodoma is the capital of the Dodoma region and is also the national capital of Tanzania. Its population is around 3 lacs. Dodoma occupies a central position in the country. It is 486 kilometres west of Dar-es-Salaam and 441 kilometres south of Arusha. The province covers an area of 2,669 square kilometres. It is populated by different ethnic groups like indigenous groups like Gogo, Rangi, and Sandawe, Christians, Arabs and Indian minorities.
Kagera Region is one of the 26 Regions in Tanzania and it is located in the north-western part of Tanzania. The capital of this region is Bukoba, a fast growing town. Bukoba is the second largest port on Lake Victoria. It is possible to reach Kagera by air, by road or by ferry. The region of Kagera is divided into 8 administrative districts namely Bukoba Urban, Bukoba Rural, Muleba, Karagwe, Biharamulo, Misenyi, Chato and Ngara. According to the 2002 census the population of the region was about 20 lakhs. This region is the 15th largest region in Tanzania.
Another region in Tanzania is Shinyanga region and the capital of this region is Shinyanga. For administrative efficiency the region is divided into 8 districts. They are Bariadi, Bukombe, Kahama, Kishapu, Maswa, Meatu, Shinyanga Rural and Shinyanga Urban. According to the 2002 census the population of this region was around 28 lakhs. Cotton, Maize and rice are usually cultivated in this region.
Kigoma is yet another region in Tanzania. It is a town and lake port. It is also the capital of the region. Its population according to the 2007 Census was 1.5 lakhs. Kigoma port on the Tanganyika Lake has a warf of two hundred meters and is equipped with several cranes to handle shipping containers. It is the only port with a railway connection. Though lake ferries are available, road connection for Kigoma is poor. This region is divided into a number of districts namely Bunda, Serengeti, Tarime and Roya, Musoma Urban and Musoma Rural.
Lindi situates in the south-eastern part of Tanzania. It is the southern most coastal town, 450 kilometres south of Dar-es-salaam and 105 kilometres north of Mtwara. According to the 2002 national census its population is only about 41,000. There is a small air strip and a small port in Lindi. A big road building is going on there with a view to connect the city with Dar-es-salaam. Islam is the major religion In Lindi. Lindi is fairly a good city having a port, an airstrip, business centres, a cosmopolitan population, primary and secondary schools and some banks.
Manyara is one of the 26 provinces in Tanzania. Its capital is Babati. Its population is around 10 lakhs according to the 2002 National census. This province is divided into 5 districts, Mbulu, Babati, Hanang, Simannjiro and Kiteto for administrative efficiency.
Iringa is the capital of Iringa region. Its population as per the 2004 census is around 1,12,000. Iringa is a busy town with a minor transport hub, some minor industries including a manufacturing and food processing, regular bus service to Dar-es-salaam and some other towns. The province is divided into six districts. This region is very famous for basket making. National and international market is there for the basket made from local reeds.
Morogoro city is the capital of Morogoro region and it is situated 190 Kilometre west of Dar-es-salaam. This city is otherwise called “Mji kasoro bahari” which means ‘city short of an ocean/port’.
A small railway station is also there in the city. For transport in the city people depend on public transport buses called “dala dala” Transport on motorbikes and bicycles is common. Water from the Mindu dam is the main source of water supply to the city. The outskirt of Morogoro is famous for its sisal plantations.
Kilimanjaro, with its capital, Moshi is one of the most important regions in Tanzania. In the north and East the region is bordered to Kenya. With a population of about 14 lakhs (according to 2002 census), the region is divided into six districts namely Rombo, Hai, MoshiRural, Moshi Urban, Mwanga and Same.
It is from the tallest mountain in Africa, “Mount Kilimanjaro’, the region Kilimanjaro got its name. Kilimanjaro lies on a tectonically active rift Valley. At a place called ‘kibo’ there is steam and fumaroles which is indicative of the residual activity of a volcano Mawenzi and Shira are the other two areas of volcanic activity. The impressive rock walls of Kilimanjaro and Mawenzi might be the result of lava and ashes. A number of parasitic cones (cone-shaped accumulation of volcanic material) could be seen in the east-west region of Kilimanjaro. The sight of the glaciers covering the remains of the volcano, the ice cliffs, the longest glaciers found on the precipitous southern south-western flanks etc will remain always green in the memory of the tourists.
During the British rule, Mwanza region was just a district in the Lake province. After independence in 1963, Mwanza was considered as a region. According to the 2002 census, it has a population of about 3 lakhs of which around 2 lakh people live in the metropolitan area of Mwanza city, which is the capital of the Region. For administrative convenience the region is divided into eight districts, Ukerewe, Magu, Sengerema, Geita, Misungwi, kwimba, Nyamagana and Ilemela. Mwanza region is mostly occupied by tribal groups.
Yet another Region of Tanzania is North Pemba. (Kaskazini Pemba) It is situated in the Pemba island. The capital of this region is Wete.
In Swahili language the word “pwani” means “coast”. Kibaha is the capital of this region. Around 9 lakh people live in this region according to the 2002 census. This region is divided into 6 districts. They are Bagamoyo, Kibaha, Kisarawe, Rufiji, Mkuranga and Mafia. Three Secondary schools are functioning in this region under the Ministry of Education.
One of the most important Regions in Tanzania is Dar-es-Salaam. Till 1974, it was the capital of the country. The ‘Dar –es-Salaam’ in Arabic means “harbour of Peace”. Formerly this city was called “Mzizima”. It is the largest city in Tanzania. This region is divided into three districts or administrative areas. They are Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke. The population of this region is about 3,000,000 in accordance with the 2010 census. The rate of population growth is 4.39 and it is considered to be the 3rd fastest growing city in Africa.
The city of Dar-es-Salaam is situated on a large natural harbour on the coast of Africa. Since it is coastal region, the city has a tropical climate. Being Tanzania’s most important city, Dar-es-Salaam is the centre of both business and governmental activities. Though the capital is shifted, Dar-es –Salaam remains as the capital as many important offices are yet to be shifted to the new capital.
Among the districts of Dar-es-Salaam, Kinondoni has the highest population. It has some high-income suburbs like Masaki, Oyster Bay, Ada Estate, Mikocheni, Regent Estate etc. Ilala is another district and it is the city where all government and ministries are situated. Upanga & Kisutu are the two places where the Asian communities largely reside. Kariakoo is famous for its shopping centres. Kariakoo market is the largest market in the East Africa. Tameke is yet another district in Dar-es-Salaam. Dar-es-Salaam port is in this district. It is the industrial district of the region and it houses the largest community of low-income residents. Kurasini is the place where the Dar-es-Salaam Harbour is located.
The name Rukwa means ‘harbours large population of crocodiles’. Rukwa is yet another Region in Tanzania and its capital is Sumbawanga. The population of this region according to the 2002 Census was about 11 lakhs. The region is divided into 4 districts namely Mpanda, Nkansi, Sumbawanga, Urban and Sumbawanga Rural.
Mara region is named after the river Mara. It is one of the 26 regions in Tanzania. The capital of the region is Musoma. Mara region hosts the Serengeti National Park which is listed a World Heritage Site. Every year this National Park attracts more than 150000 tourists all over the world. Another specialty of Mara region is that it is occupied by a variety of tribal groups such as Jita, Luo, Ruri, Zanaki, Kabwa, Kiroba, Kuria, Simbiti, Ngoreme, Sizaki, Kwaya, Ikoma, Isenye, Ikizu, Nata, Sukuma and Taturu (Datooga).
Singida region in Tanzania is considered as one of the poorest regions in the country. Singida is a region is divided into 4 districts and a town. Its population is around 10 lakhs according to the 2002 Census. A branch terminal railway station of the Central Railway of Tanzanian Railways is functioning in Singdia.
Tabora is another region prominent inTanzania. Tabora is the capital of this region. Its population according to the 2002 census was about 1.25 lakhs. In the olden days it was a slave trade centre. The Omani traders planted mango trees in the streets of Tabora and now the city is called the ‘fruit capital’ of Western Tanzania. It has no tourist attractions. Tabora is a railway junction on the Central railway Line. The town is connected to Mwanza in the north and Tanganyika in the west.
Mbeya is a region in Tanzania that has its capital at Mbeya itself. It situates in the south west part of Tanzania. The region’s population is estimated to be 2 million. When one travels from Zambia to Tanzania overland, the first urban settlement that comes across is Mbeya.
Tanga is the name of the region as well as the name of the regional Head quarters. Tanga is one of the largest cities in Tanzania with a population of about 2.5 lakhs as per the 2002 Census. The city is linked to the African Great Lakes region as well as Dar-es-Salaam.
Natural Resources in Tanzania
Tanzania is blessed with vast amount of natural resources that add to the country’s economy. Woodlands, forest, wild animals, rivers and lakes constitute the natural resources of this country. It is necessary to preserve the natural wealth of the nation in order to maintain an ecological balance. Day to day lives of Tanzanians and tribal people in the region depends largely on these natural resources. Activities like Beekeeping and fishing are part of the culture and lifestyle of the people.
Fish Resources and Distribution
Since Tanzania lies in the coastal area, fishing is one of the chief occupations of the locals. The coastal area of the region is renowned for its fishery resources, marine and inland fisheries. Along with Marine fishing, people engage in fresh water and lake fishing. The topography of the region with 64,000 square kilometres marine water and 223,000 square kilometres Exclusive Economic Zone offers favourable conditions for the development of fisheries. Lake Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa lakes are known makes fresh lake fishing possible. Apart from the great lakes, Tanzania consists of several lakes and rivers were variety of fishes in large numbers is found.
In Tanzania 80,000 are permanently employed in the fishery related activities. Nile perch, sardines and prawns are the main exports of Tanzania. Over 350,000 metric tons of fishes are caught annually and among the total fish catch 90% are from artisanal fishermen and 10% are produced from industrial fishing. Fishing sector adds 1.6 to 3.1% to the annual GDP.
Fishing activities employs people and they get make a livelihood from it. It also helps make foreign exchange. In order to maintain this natural resource, effective measures should be adopted. Currently, the fisheries policy aims at encouraging sustainable exploitation and marketing of fish resources by protecting the aquatic environment. Community non-governmental organizations and private sector also contributes their share in managing and sustaining the fisheries.
Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI) conducts researches for the sustaining the fish resources and to bring further development to this sector. Mbegani Fisheries Development Centre offers courses on fisheries together with boat building, fish processing marketing and quality control, marine engineering, marine mechanics as well as tailor made courses.
Tanzania is covered with 33.5 million hectares forests and woodlands of which two thirds of woodlands are transformed into public lands. However, these woodlands are maintained improperly. Among the 13 million hectares of gazetted area forests, 80,000 are under Plantation Forestry and 1.6 million hectares are kept under Water Catchment Management. Activities like beekeeping, preserving unique natural ecosystems and genetic resources are offered by the forests. Bio-energy is used by majority of the rural population and it adds up to 92% of the total energy consumption in Tanzania. Apart from wood fuels, these woodlands produce forest products like environmental goods, bee products and catchments. The forest sector offers 2.3% to 10% to the Gross Domestic Product.
Not only do the forests offer revenues and exports to the nation, it creates employment for 730,000 people yearly. They make their livelihood by engaging themselves in forest related activities. However, the growth of forest sector is hampered due to the meagre infrastructural facilities, deforestation, poor forestry extension services and ineffective wood based industries. Apart from that, a proper management plan is not made for the effective utilization of resources or development of the sector.
The forests are used as grazing land for livestock, for raw materials for industries, water for irrigation and generation of electricity. It also performs its role to protect environment, control of soil erosion and nutrients. In 1999, 127,202.11 cubic meters of land was harvested from the natural forests and 127,202.11 cubic meters were harvested from plantations. In 1998, the harvesting decreases significantly with 60,850 cubic metres were harvested from the natural forests and 450,400 cubic metres were from plantations. Fine hardwood timbers are the main Export.
Afforestation activities are performed in order to preserve the natural forests. Non governmental organizations, communities and private sector take part on afforestation, national campaign tree planting and harvesting. To develop the sector and to preserve the forest resources for future a 1998 National Forest Policy was laid down. In 1979, Tanzania Association of Foresters was formed and it comprised forest related professionals. It aimed at encouraging public interest in forestry, enhance forestry profession, activities related to forestry and to create a forum for those engaged in forestry.
Beekeeping is one of the main occupations of the people. It is not just the livelihood, but honey itself is their resource of food, raw materials for different industries and medicine. This sector adds up to 1% of the country’s GDP. It earns foreign exchanges and promotes ecotourism. Honey produced and offered by Tanzania is of high quality and they have won 100% the Quality Test for organic Honey in 1991, in the UK.
To meet the increasing local and international demand for honey based products, they have to overcome problems affecting the sector. When compared to 1994/95 fiscal results, the sector has performed better in 1998/1999. Poor beekeeping extension services, lack of law, requirement of formal cross – sectoral coordination, inadequate statistical details, Lack of new beekeeping technology are a few of the major problems faced by this sector. Although, the estimated production prospective of bee products is 138,000 tons of honey and 9,200 tons of beeswax annually, they could produce just 4860 tons honey and 324 tons of beeswax.
Traditional beekeepers are those primarily engaged in beekeeping activities. With better private ownership the sector can be used to its full potential. It also requires foundation and development of honey based industries, Extension of beekeeping equipment and marketing. Policy & Regulatory Framework for beekeeping works to improve the input of this sector to the economy. It also focuses on the conservation and management of natural resources, improve quality and quantity of bee products, increase employment prospects and to ensure ecosystem stability.
To conserve and manage this sector, communities, private parties and non government organizations has come forward. Government has laid down subject strategy and rules to sustain the beekeeping activities.
Wildlife is a very potential sector and proper utilization of it will bring foreign exchanges to the country. Game viewing is one of the important wildlife activities in the country and it attracts local and foreigners. Wildlife also offers activities like hunting, resident hunting, ranching and farming. To generate earrings, Game trophies and live birds are exported.
Over 2282 people are employed permanently by this sector of which 2046 are employed temporarily as guides and porters. Some of the basic problems faced by this sector are illegal hunting of the dying out species like elephants, lack of consciousness of the importance of wildlife, deficiency of baseline data and information, insufficient rural user rights to the community and inadequate capacity in terms human resources and budget allocation.
Variety of fauna and flora including endemic species and sub-species, add to the rich wildlife of Tanzania. Wildlife of Tanzania is home for antelopes, fish, amphibians, invertebrates and plants. Huge concentration of large mammals in the world is found in the grasslands and open woodlands of the Serengeti and Maasai Steppe in the north-west and north-east of Tanzania. The wildlife of Tanzania has great significance nationally and internationally. About 19% of wildlife exists in protected areas where there is no human settlement and 9% of wildlife co-exists with humans.
wildlife conservation Act aims at protecting, conserving and regulating the flora and fauna in Tanzania. Under this act, Grazing livestock in game reserves is proscribed. They also encourage rural communities and the private sector, to participate in wildlife conservation. Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA) is the WildLife Sector Stakeholders and it looks over developing and administration of several parks including Serengeti, Tarangire, Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Ruaha, Manyara, Katavi and Mikumi national Parks.
Natural resources in Tanzania are hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas and nickel. These natural products bring earnings to the country and it is used for local consumption. Fisheries, forests, wildlife, beekeeping are the natural wealth of the country. Proper maintenance and utilization of these sectors is required to sustain the ecology and environment.